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City of daily ceramic-Chaozhou

2024-01-04 15:23

Speaking of China's ceramic cities, many people may think of Jingdezhen in Jiangxi. In fact, Chaozhou can also be regarded as one of the birthplaces of ceramic culture. Chaozhou is the ancient porcelain capital and one of the important birthplaces of ceramic culture in my country. The ceramic products produced by the Bijiashan Kiln in Chaozhou are exported overseas and are historical witnesses of the prosperous overseas trade on the ancient Maritime Silk Road.


Chaozhou's ceramic production has a history of thousands of years. In the Tang Dynasty, Chaozhou had large-scale porcelain production, and underglaze dot brown porcelain appeared. The Northern Song Dynasty was a period of rapid development of ceramics in Chaozhou history. During this period, Chaozhou ceramics production was large-scale, sophisticated in craftsmanship, and of high quality. The Bijiashan Kiln in Chaozhou is a representative kiln site of the Northern Song Dynasty during this period.

At the western foot of Bijia Mountain, starting from Hutou Mountain in the north and ending at Yinzi Mountain in the south, it is said that there were ninety-nine dragon kilns at its peak, so it was called "Baiyao Village". Because the porcelain kiln uses high-quality kaolin and uses high-temperature reduction flames to produce white porcelain, it is called "white porcelain kiln." With this as the center, and the Beiguan Kiln and Nanguan Kiln on the other side of the Han River, they formed "ten miles along the river, facing each other with fireworks", which shows the grand prosperity of ceramic production at that time. The Bijiashan kiln thus became a milestone in Chaozhou kiln industry and left a mark in the history of ancient Chinese ceramics.

After the reform and opening up, daily-use ceramics companies flourished in Chaozhou, which also helped the industry enter a period of rapid development, and the Chaozhou ceramics industry cluster was initially formed. At that time, "every household pounded mud, and every household pulled bricks" became a strange street scene in Chaozhou. The ceramic products of this period were mainly daily ceramics, supplemented by artistic ceramics for display. Sanitary ceramics, electronic ceramics, etc. were in their infancy. , has a wide variety of daily-use ceramic products, constantly explores export channels, and achieves the goal of "producing whatever customers around the world need". Product creativity and production are ahead of other domestic production areas.

In the 1990s, Chaozhou's ceramic industry entered a stage of rapid development. Individual enterprises thrived, the scale of enterprises continued to expand, and the proportion of exports gradually increased. Chaozhou has become one of the important export bases of Chinese ceramics and the largest production base of daily-use porcelain and craft porcelain on the southeast coast of China.

After years of development, Chaozhou Daily Ceramics has formed an industrial chain that runs through product design, production and sales. Ceramic raw material processing, ceramic chemicals, ceramic decals, product packaging and other supporting enterprises have also developed simultaneously. At present, daily-use ceramics account for almost half of Chaozhou's ceramic industry, both in terms of number of companies and output value.

The industrialization of Chaozhou ceramic production has promoted the rapid formation of the industrial chain, and industries supporting ceramic production such as porcelain clay, chemical pigments, decorative paper, packaging, and transportation have also formed a large scale. Today, Chaozhou is the largest ceramic production area in the country. Because of its outstanding product design and craftsmanship, Chaozhou porcelain is exported to Europe, the United States, Southeast Asia and other countries and regions. In 2022, the output value of Chaozhou's entire ceramic industry chain will exceed 60 billion yuan. There are more than 3,000 ceramic industrial enterprises of various types and 376 ceramic enterprises above designated size. The annual production and sales of daily ceramics, furnishing art ceramics, and architectural sanitary ceramics respectively account for 10% of the country's total. 25%, 25%, 40%, export volume accounts for 30%, 40%, 55% of the world, ranking first in the country.

In the long process of development, Chaozhou has continuously learned from and absorbed folk art techniques and expression techniques such as clay sculpture, wood carving, and Chaozhou embroidery with Chaozhou cultural characteristics, gradually forming unique artistic characteristics and styles. Today, Fengxi porcelain firing techniques, Chaozhou inlaid porcelain, Chaozhou colored porcelain firing techniques, etc. have all been included in the national intangible cultural heritage list. The inheritance and development of intangible cultural heritage has also attracted much attention from the government and industry.

A handful of clay has been fired for thousands of years. In the long history, the light of Chaozhou ceramics has become more and more crystal clear. According to Chaozhou’s official statistics, Chaozhou’s annual sales of daily-use ceramics account for 30% of the world’s sales—meaning that for every three porcelain bowls sold in the world, one is produced in Chaozhou; its annual sales of decorative art ceramics account for 40% of the world’s—meaning For every 2.5 ceramic ornaments sold in the world, 1 is produced in Chaozhou; the annual sales volume of architectural sanitary ceramics accounts for 55% of the world - meaning that for every 2 toilets sold in the world, 1 is produced in Chaozhou.

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